Letter from William Henry Seward to Frances Miller Seward, July 28, 1833

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Letter from William Henry Seward to Frances Miller Seward, July 28, 1833
x

transcriber

Transcriber:spp:hrr

student editor

Transcriber:spp:msr

Distributor:Seward Family Digital Archive

Institution:University of Rochester

Repository:Rare Books and Special Collections

Date:1833-07-28

In the context of this project, private URIs with the prefix "psn" point to person elements in the project's persons.xml authority file. In the context of this project, private URIs with the prefix "pla" point to place elements in the project's places.xml authority file. In the context of this project, private URIs with the prefix "psn" point to person elements in the project's staff.xml authority file. In the context of this project, private URIs with the prefix "psn" point to person elements in the project's bibl.xml authority file. verical-align: super; font-size: 12px; text-decoration: underline; text-decoration: line-through; color: red;

Letter from William Henry Seward to Frances Miller Seward, July 28, 1833

action: sent

sender: William Seward
Birth: 1801-05-16  Death: 1872-10-10

location: Frankfurt am Main, Germany

receiver: Frances Seward
Birth: 1805-09-24  Death: 1865-06-21

location: Auburn, NY

transcription: hrr 

revision: crb 2017-05-31

<>
Page 1

Frankfort on the Maine, Sunday July 28th, 1833. My dearest Frances, In my last letter which I have yet before me I left you in the Chapel of St Nicholas in Westminster
Abbey. Forgetting as far as possible, the beauties of Holland & the glory of the Rhine I will
immediately rejoin you in the hallowed shades of Westminster.
We pass by the noble monument erected in memory of the late Duchess of
Northumberland
Birth: 1715-11-26 Death: 1776-12-05
who if her husband
Birth: 1714 Death: 1786-06-06
has not exaggerated her merits
in the inscription was a woman of rare excellence, and that of the wife of Edward
Plantagenet
Duke of York and others in honor of
the noble dead and in leaving the chapel tread upon the grave of Sir Henry Spelman a great
Antiquarian and Lawyer who died in
1641 and in consideration of his eminent talents was permitted to be buried at the door of
the Chapel.
The Chapel of Henry the 7th is a [ sepulcre ]
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Alternate Text: sepulchre
into which all ashes have been
or can be admitted except those which have been warned by the
Hood of Kings. One of the most imposing monuments is that of Margaret Douglas, daughter
to Margaret Queen of Scots. The inscrip—
tion sets forth that her great grandfather was King Edward III, King Henry 7th her Uncle,
Henry 8th her Cousin Guise, King Ed—
ward 6th
her brother, &c. &c. &c. She was privately married to Thomas Howard son of the
Duke of Norfolk in 1527 and with her hus—
band was committed to the Tower of London by King Henry 8th for marrying without his
consent. Howard died in prison and she after—
wards married and was mother to Lord Darnley. Darnley is represented by effigy kneeling on the tomb with a crown upon
his head. But this and all the other ostentatious monuments in this Chapel sink into
insignificance by the side of that which covers
the poor remains of that queen of beauty, and child of misfortune Mary Queen of Scots.
At the end of this Chapel is what is called the Royal Vault in which rest the ashes of
the Licentious Charles the 2d
Birth: 1630-05-29 Death: 1685-02-06
. The zealous
and illustrious King William 3d
 Death: 1702-03-08
. Prince of Orange and Queen Mary his wife and Queen Anne of blessed memory. In the worst
possible taste a wooden is erected over the vault in which is a wax figure
confined so as to imitate life, representing
Charles The 2d, and dressed in the robes worn by that King at the installation of Knights of
the Garter.
In this Chapel the Knights of the Bath are entombed. The sides of the chapel are divided into stalls, and in these stalls are
placed the brass plates of the arms of the Knights over which hang their banners
and swords and helmets. In the vault
beneath the pavement were buried George 2d
 Death: 1760-10-25
, and Queen Caroline and ^several of the Princes^ and Dukes of the Royal Family
Here also is the tomb of Henry 7th and Elizabeth his Queen the Last of the Monarchs of the House of York. The tomb is sur—
rounded by effigies of the deceased King and Queen lying close together, on the monument
are many other devices, among them
that of the white and red roses twisted together. The whole monument is
enclosed in a chantry of cast brass and must have
been immensely expensive. Near this is the monument of Edward 6th who died at the
age of 15 years and in the 7th year of
his reign, a great part of this monument was demolished by the Puritans because it had
some sculptures representing the
Passion of the Savior. There is a tablet upon the wall in honor of Antoine Philippe
Birth: 1775-07-03 Death: 1807-05-18
Duke of
Montpensier. The inscription
states that it was erected by Louis Philippe
Birth: 1773-10-06 Death: 1850-08-26
Duke of Orleans in memory of the best of brothers.
Louis Philippe you recollect is now
King of France. Passing others the superb monument of Queen Elizabeth is before
you. The inscription recites that “she was the
mother of her Country and the patroness of religion and learning, that she was skilled in many languages adorned with every
excellence of mind and freedom and endowed with princely virtues beyond her sex (what a
calumny upon the sex!) that in
her reign religion was uestablished refined to its primitive purity: peace was reestablished,
money restored to its past
value, domestic insurrections quelled, France delivered from intestine troubles, the Netherlands supported, the Spanish
Armada defeated, Ireland which had been almost lost was reco ^ve^ red, the revenues of both the Universities improved and
in short all England enriched. She was a most prudent Governess forty five years a virtuous
and triumphant queen
truly religious and blessed in all her great affairs and after a calm and resigned death in the
70th year of her age she
left the mortal part to be deposited in this church.” She died in 1602. By her side rests also her predecessor the bloody Queen Mary.
At the farther end of the Chapel is the vault of King James I & Queen Anne. He was son to
Lord Darnley & Mary Queen of Scots.
We will leave this humbling resting place of monarchs after reading the inscription upon an altar at the end of the wall. “Here lies
the relics of Edward V King of England and ^the^ Duke of York who being confined in the
Tower and there stifled with pillows were
privately and meanly burned by order of their perfidious Uncle Richard the Usurper.
Their bones long inquired after and
wished for after laying 190 years in the rubbish of the Tower stairs were on the 17th
of July 1676 by undoubted proofs
discovered being buried deep in that place. Charles 2d pitying their unhappy fate ordered
these unfortunate Princes
to be laid among the relics of their predecessors in the year 1678.” I have detained you
so long in this Chapel my dear
Frances for the purpose of enabling you to realize how much I was interested in this
monumental history of so many and
such interesting periods of the English Monarchy. Here rest together the good if such there
were and the wicked, those who fell by
violence or stratagem and those who caused their death. The walk through the Chapel
seemed like reviewing my reading of English History.
Pass we now to the Chapel of St Paul (the 5th Chapel). Unjust as it is to the many
great men whose monuments are around us
we will first look ^only^ at that which commemorates the worth of Sir James Fullerton,
Knight First Gentleman of the bed chamber to King
Charles the I. The inscription after going considerably into detail concerning his merits tells us by way of summing up the whole
that “he died fuller of faith than fear, fuller of resolution than of pains, fuller of honor than
of days.”
We now enter the 11th Chapel that of Edward the Confessor. In the center is the ancient shrine of the venerable and Royal Saint, it is now
defaced having been robbed by devotees who carried off pieces of it as relics. Here are the
graves and monuments of Edith Queen & ^Consort^ & wife
of Edward the Confessor, Matilda Queen & wife of King Henry I, Edward 3d, “Edward Ist & Eleanor his wife, and of Henry 5th the
“Prince Hal” who so well enjoyed the humor and the meanness of Sir John Falstaff, besides
many others of the blood royal.
In this Chapel are preserved the Coronation chairs. I availed myself of the opportunity to rest and endeavored to feel
some elevation of spirit while I sat in the seats of the Kings of England, but the old rickety
oak chairs not fit so garn[ ish ]
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a Kitchen made too sorry a figure. On Coronation days they are covered with tissue. The Chair of King Edward you
ma[ y ]
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recollect was brought by that monarch from Scotland in 1297 after the conquest of
Baliol King of Scots.
We have not time to decipher the legendary sculpture upon the wall commemorative of the miraculous and saintly
deeds of the Confessor and will therefore advance to the 7th Chapel, that of St. Erasmus.
Here is the monument of Thomas Cecil Earl of Exeter. He is seen in effigy lying upon the monument, by his right side a
with a space on the left vacant, which he directed to be filled by ^the effigy of^ his second
wife where she should be placed by
his side within the tomb, but the Lady declaring that she would not rest at his left side gave
express orders that
her effigy should not be placed there. Nevertheless, the Lady was buried on the left side
although in deference to her com—
mands no effigy of her graces the tomb, to notice the other monuments in this Chapel we arrive next at the
8th Chapel that of Islip or St John the Baptist, where rest the remains of John Islip Abbott of
Westminster the founder
of the Abbey. In a Chantry over this Chapel are wax figures of Queen Elizabeth, King
William ^Queen Mary and^ and Queen Anne
in the identical robes worn by them respectively at the time of their coronation, and a wax
figure of Lord Nelson
Birth: 1758-09-29 Death: 1805-10-21
in
full uniform with that best of mottoes, his own words before the battle of Trafalgar “Victory or Westminster Abbey.” The
Hero was so fortunate as to win both. Lord Nelson sat for this figure and it is said to be
excellent. He was a
small and not very imposing personage.
Enough of the Royal and the Noble – we pass by also many tombs and monuments in
honor of the brave with whose errands we Americans
are not familiarly acquainted and leaving the nine Chapels enter the Area. Here is the monument in memory of General Wolfe
Birth: 1727-01-02 Death: 1759-09-13
who fell
in the arms of victory at Quebec. He is represented on the marble in the agonies of death
falling into the arms of a grenadier and point—
ing to Glory whose angelic form is seen in the clouds. The inscription is simple and
beautiful. “To the memory of James Wolfe Ma—
jor General and Commander in Chief of the British Land Forces on an expedition against
Quebec, who after surmounting by ability and
valor all obstacles of art and nature was slain in the moment of victory on the 13th of Sept.
1759. The King and Parliament of Great
Britain dedicate this monument[ . ]
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” But what is more interesting is that here are the remains of Anne of Cleves sister of the Duke of Cleves
who was contracted married to Henry the 8th in January and divorced in July of the same
year with liberty to marry again
but being grieved by the indignity sustained at the hands of that infamous monarch lived in
retirement the rest of her life.
And still more interesting perhaps to you from the recollection of the pictures of her
sufferings drawn by Shakespeare
Birth: 1564-04-26 Death: 1616-04-23
here lie the
remains of Anne daughter of Warwick and wife of the tyrant Richard the Third by whom
she was poisoned in order that
he might marry Elizabeth daughter of his brother Edward 4th and sister to the Prince of Wales and Duke of York whom he cau—
sed to be murdered by Tyrell in the Tower. The later marriage he did not live to consummate. The battle of Bosworth Field
terminated his wicked career. There are also here remains of a monument of Sebert King of the East Saxons
who first built this Abbey or Church & of Ethelgoda
Unknown
his wife. They died in the year 616.
From the tombs of the aristocracy of wealth and power we pass to those of the
illustrious men of genius and virtue who
have won the honours of internment in the Abbey. The ^first^ place assigned to these is called the “Poets corner”
How correct was the judgment which dictated this inscription “J. Dryden
 Death: 1700-05-01
born
1632 died May 1, 1700.” This monument
is plain and majestic worthy of the great Poet to whose memory it is dedicated
Crowleys monument is beautiful, the mo[ nu ]
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ment is surmounted by an urn which is begirt with a wreath of laurel and from which
the fire is forever proceeding. The mon[ u ]
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ment of Geoffrey Chaucer the father of English poetry is so much defaced that it can
not easily be deciphered. He died in the year 1400. Nothing can be more affected than
this inscription upon the monument of
Page 2

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This text appears in the upper left corner of the page
Michael Drayton “O pious marble! Let thy readers Know
What they and what their children owe
To Drayton’s name, whose sacred dust
We recommend unto thy trust.
Protect his memory and preserve his story:
Remain a lasting monument of his glory;
And when thy ruins shall disclaim
To be the treasure of his name,
His name, that cannot fade shall be
An everlasting monument to thee.”
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This text appears in the upper right corner of the page
if the deceased poet ^had^ made no wiser than the living eulogist
the monument would have prolonged his name much too far already
“O rare Ben Jonson” ludicrous as it appears in this age is the
only inscription upon the tomb of him who was excelled only
by Shakespeare in Dramatic Composition in the age in which so many
authors of that class flourished.
A monument commemorates Samuel Butler
 Death: 1680-09-25
the Author of Hudibras
Author: Samuel Butler Publisher: F. Lucas, Jun. & P. H. Nicklin Place of Publication:Baltimore Date: 1812

but most conspicuously sets forth the extreme poverty of the poet.
The inscription states that it was erected by John Barber
Unknown
Lord May—
or of London that he who was destitute of everything when living
might not want a monument when dead.” The following inscription upon the monument
of Edmund Spenser (the next great
English poet after Chaucer) is in good taste, “Here lies expecting the second coming of our
Savior Christ Jesus, The body of
Edmund Spenser the Prince of Poets in his time, whose divine spirit needs no other witness than the works which he
left behind him. He was born in London in 1550 and died in 1598.
The monument to Milton
Birth: 1608-12-09 Death: 1674-11-08
is plain and simple. Beneath it is the monument to Gray
 Death: 1771-07-30
.
Upon this tablet the lyric muse is
represented holding a medallion of this poet and at the same time pointing to Milton[’]s bust
above it.
“The inscription is “No more the Grecian Muse unrivaled reigns,
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To Britain let the Nations homage pay!
She felt a Homer’s fire in Milton’s strains
A Pindar’s rapture in the lyre of Gray.”
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A beautiful monument and long inscription ^preserve the^ record ^of^ the name and talents of
Matthew Prior
 Death: 1721-09-18

I wish I had been able to copy the just though prolix inscription upon the
monument of Granville Sharp
Birth: 1735 Death: 1813-07-06
the advocate of Negro emancipation. It was
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erected by the African Institution of London.
By the side of the monument of Mrs. Pritchard
Birth: 1711 Death: 1768
an actress of great merit is the elegant monument of Shakespeare. A beautiful
statue of Shakespeare presents him always living[ . ]
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The scroll which he holds in his hand
contains those lines from the Tempest
 Publisher: unknown Place of Publication:unknown Date: 18--

so beautiful and so appropriate here “The cloud capped Towers, the gorgeous palaces,
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Verse continues in column at center

The solemn Temples, the great globe itself,
Yea all which it inherit shall dissolve
And like this insubstantial pageant faded
Leave not a wreck behind.
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Letter fragment in column at right

The monument to the memory of Thomp—
son
Birth: 1700-09-11 Death: 1748-08-27
Author of the Seasons represents
the Poet, and the Seasons
Author: James Thomson Publisher: Privately printed Place of Publication:Newburyport, MA Date: 1762-1800?
. A boy is
offering the poet a laurel crown as
the reward of his success.
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Upon the pedestal are the heads
of Henry 5th Richard 2d and Queen
Elizabeth. The two former being
conspicuous characters in his works
the latter a patron.
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Line of text aligned at center

The monument of Nicholas Rowe
 Death: 1718-12-06
an author of great
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celebrity in his age though now less extensively Known is next to that of Shakespare.
The monument to the memory of Gay
Birth: 1685-06-30 Death: 1732-12-04
contains the following trifling epitaph
written by himself for the purpose
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Life is vapour jest and all things show it
I thought so once but now I know it”
“Of manners gentle, of affections wild;
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But the following epitaph written by Pope
Birth: 1688-05-10 Death: 1744-05-30
and placed underneath the 3 others is more worthy of the Decorated Poet.
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“In wit a man, simplicity a child,
With native humour tempting ^tempering^ virtuous rage
Formed to delight at once and lash the age;
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Above temptation in a low estate
And uncorrupted e’en among the great
A safe companion and an easy friend
Unblamed through life, lamented in thy end;
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These are Thy honours, not that here thy bust?
Is mixed with heroes or with Kings thy dust
But that the worthy and the good shall say
Striking their pensive bosoms
Here lies Gay.”
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I must resist/ no I will yield to it, the temptation to transcribe this brief comprehensive character of
Goldsmith
Birth: 1730 Death: 1774
“He was eminent a poet philosopher and Historian; He left no species of writing unattempted and none that
he attempted unimproved; he was master of the softer passions and could at pleasure command tears or provoke laughter
but in every thing he said and or did good nature was predominant, he was witty sublime spirited and facetious, in speech
pompous, in conversation elegant and graceful, the love of his associates, the fidelity of his friends and the veneration of
his readers have earned this monument to be erected to his memory.
Why should you not have opportunity to admire with me also this beautiful and just inscription upon the tomb of Addison. I
give of this and other Latin inscriptions. The translation furnished me. Beneath the statue of Addison which is surrounded by the
are the words “Whoever thou art venerate the memory of Joseph Addison in whom Christian faith virtue
good morals found a continual patron; whose genius was shown in verse and every exquisite Kind of writing, who gave to
[ pos ]
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terity? the best example of pure existing language and the best rules for living well which remains and ever will remain sacred whose weight of
argument was tempered with ^his^ wit, and accurate judgment with politeness so that he encouraged the good and reformed the improvident
tamed the wicked and in some degree made them in love with virtue. He was born in the year 1672 and his fortune being increased
gradually ^he^ arrived at length to public honour and died in the 48th year of his age, the honour and delight of the British Nation.”
Handel
Birth: 1685-02-23 Death: 1759-04-14
is represented on his monument with his left arm resting on a group of musical instruments listening to the music of an angel
playing upon a harp in the clouds. His great work “The Messiah” is open before him at that part where are the words “ I Know
[ th ]
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at my Redeemer liveth.” The inscription is “George Frederick Handel Esq. born Feb 23, 1686 Died April 16, 1759
Garrick’s
Unknown
monument is embellished by a group of statuary in which are figures of Tragedy and Comedy. The inscription prop—
oses no merit. A simple slab bearing his name covers the Ashes of Francis Beaumont the associate of Fletcher
dramatic composition he died in London 1515.
The monument of Dr Watts
 Death: 1748-11-25
is of white marble and contains his breast with a figure of the poet in the attitude of con—
templation. The inscription contains nothing but his birth and death.
A sarcophagus honours the memory of Major Andre
Birth: 1750-05-02 Death: 1780-10-02
. The inscriptions are “Sacred to the memory of Major Andre who raised by his
merit at an early period of life to the rank of Adjutant General of the British Forces in America and employed in an important
but hazardous enterprise. Fell a sacrifice to his zeal for his King and Country on the 2d. of October 1780 aged 29 universally
beloved and esteemed by the army in which he served and lamented even by his foes. His gracious Sovereign King George 3d.
has caused this monument to be erected.” Below ^the preceding^ is the further inscription “The remains of the Major Andre were
deposited on the 28th November 1821 in a grave near this monument.” On the sarcophagus was ^the^ figure of Washington to whom a flag of truce
presents the letter of Andre written to the American Commander
Birth: 1732-02-22 Death: 1799-12-14
the night previous to his execution. You may perhaps have
forgotten that in 1821 The British Consul at New York caused the remains of Major Andre to be disinter[ r ]
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ed in America and sent
to England. To William Pitt the younger
Birth: 1759-05-28 Death: 1806-01-23
the most industrious Prime minister the King & Parliament have erected a monument
of great beauty. It presents a fine statue of the Deceased habited in the robes of Chancellor of the Exchequer, on his right at
the base of the statue History is recording the acts of his administration and anarchy lie s chained at his feet
One of the finest in design and execution is as indeed it ought to be the monument of Sir Isaac Newton. The inscription is translated
is that By a spirit almost divine he solved on new principles the motion and figures of the planets. This contained the paths of
the comets and the ebbing and flowing of the sea, he discovered the dissimilarities in color of the rays of light and the prop—
erties of color arising from the same which none but himself ever thought of. He was a wise diligent and faithful in—
terpreter of nature antiquity and the Holy scriptures. By his philosophy he maintained the dignity of the Supreme Being
and by the purity of his life the simplicity of the gospel.” The inscription concludes with the exclamation “How much
reason have mortals to exult in their existence of such and so great an ornament of the human race.” Newton is represented
in a recumbent posture having on four folios Divinity Chronology Optics & Philo Prin. Over his head is a large globe and here is
delineated the course of the comet in 1680. Among other devices is that of the weighing the new with the .
A monument dedicated to the memory of Warren Hastings
Birth: 1732 Death: 1818
contains an extravagant eulogy upon his upon ^his administration of the government of India ^ but
it can never rescue his favor from the opprobrium. Past upon it by the splendid the immutable speech of Sheridan
Birth: 1751-10-30 Death: 1816-07-07
.
A most magificent monument the simple and just tribute to one of the greatest of English Statesmen “Erected by the King
and Parliament as a testimony to the virtues and ability of William Pitt Earl of Chatham
Birth: 1708 Death: 1778
during whose administration in
the reign of George 2d
Birth: 1683-11-10 Death: 1760-10-25
and George 2d Divine Providence exalted Great Britain to an height of prosperity unknown to any
former age. Born Nov, 15, 1708. Died May 4, 1778.” Underneath the pavement on which you stand when reading this monu—
ment are the graves of Pitt and Fox
Birth: 1749-01-24 Death: 1806-09-13
^the rival Statesmen?^ adjacent to each other as so beautifully described by Scott
Birth: 1771-08-15 Death: 1832-09-21
“Drop upon Fox’s grave the tear ‘Twill
trickle to his rival’s bier.” By their side are the Marquis of Londonderry and Mr Canning
Birth: 1770-04-11 Death: 1827-08-08
late Prime Minister
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There is point though Labored in the following inscription
Grace Sevt
Unknown
wife of Colonel Scott
Unknown
died Feb. 26.1465
He that will give my Grace but what is hers,
Must say her heart has not
Made only her dear Scott,
But Virture, Worth, and Sweetness Widows.”
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It may amuse you to study it. I should like to know which you
admire most the wit or the poetry.
I must mention lest it may seem that Parliament forgot the rival of Pitt
the splendid monument to Ch[ ar ]
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les James Fox on which his is repre—
sented falling into the arms of L[ i ]
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berty. Peace is reclining on his arms
A negro is expressing his gratitude[ e ]
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for his efforts in the cause of abolition
Page 3

The following impious inscription to Purcell
 Death: 1695-11-21
is of a date ancient as the last. “Here lies Henry Purcell, who left this life and is gone to that blessed place
where only his harmony can be exceeded.” I have heard it said that a blacksmith having died in London his widow availed herself of
this inscription as a form and inscribed upon her husbands tomb “He left his life and is gone to that place where only his fie can be exceed—
ed.” A plain coarse slab covers the remains of Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Birth: 1751-10-30 Death: 1816-07-07
who dies the poorest and the greatest man of his age.
I fear I have detained you too long my dear Frances in the Abbey. Above all other places this had been the object of my greatest curiosity. In my
discourse of mighty England the ramble among the tombs in their venerable walls had always been regarded as that which would most
interest me. I have given you but a very brief account in comparison with their number of monuments. I had time to direct my
attention only to those which ^had^ peculiarly associations to interest me. We passed from the graves to the bustle of Life in London.
A large area enclosed by stone buildings was on our right. The Tower was guarded, and on inquiring we found that his was
the quarters of the Royal Horse Guards. We were so fortunate as to witness a parade of a part of these troops. Their uni—
forms and equipments are splendid and their evolutions of course such as would be necesitated of a corps maintained to
defend the person of the Sovereign.
We inquired the way and were officiously shown by a porter to Westminster Hall the place
where the Courts are held. The construction of the rooms has nothing peculiar. The Courts had adjourned a few days
before our arrival in Town. We looked up the avenues to the House of Parliament but it was too early for the debates
Walking down to Westminster bridge we entered a small boat (of which there are thousands) on the Thames and direct[ ed ]
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the waterman
Unknown
to row us down to the Tower. The Thames though a narrow and shallow river at London is far more
respectable than any other river we had seen in England except the Meuse. It flows through the center of the great City
if Southwark on the North Side be regarded as a part of the town. There are five bridges over the Thames in the City. The principal is
The London Bridge which is a free bridge. The River was auisuated by ^covered with^ passengers ascending descending crossing and recrossing in Steam boats
barges and ferry boats. In no other places that I have seen is there the same extent of sailing in small boats. They are used here
because they are always safe. The river being small and little affected by current or tide, but the water is not clear and despite
that English poets and novelists say of the pleasure of sailing on the Thames I could not bring myself to deem it very ro—
mantic. Our Waterman landed us at the Tower House. Now of all the Towers castles and fortifications and garrisons
and prisons that we have seen that most celebrated the Tower of London is least inspiring. It is low and plain and bears
no comparison with the State Prison at Auburn. But then its history commends it to the curious inspection of every trav—
eller who has sympathized in the sufferings of the oppressed and the murdered victims of mendacious power
We were conducted through the tower by a yeoman
Unknown
of the Guard. We have all heard in America so much of the Kings menagerie in the
tower that I confess I was impatient to see the collection of rare and valuable animals which the magnificence of Kings had
been expended to procure. Conceive my astonishment at finding the most meager exhibition I have ever beheld. Neither horse nor
elephant but a camel and some monkeys, a few owls and some stuffed skins of nobler animals which once had
been captives of the King of England. Some sailors who were present scowled at the exhibition as being the meanest
in the Kingdom. The conductor replied that “no where in the Kingdom can you see a better for six pence!” The truth is
that the menagerie has depreciated so much that the price Also of admission has been reduced to six pence from a shilling.
But I am not inclined to censure his Majesty for this neglect. In my judgment it would quite as well become the head
of a learned and Christian People to abolish the barbarous custom of Keeping a menagerie in the tower altogether.
We were next shown what is called Queen Elizabeth’s armory where are preserved weapons of ancient form which have given place to
more useful mementos. Among other things here is a large two handed mace of iron said to be 900 years old Two Lochaber axes used
in the reign of Henry 8th, pikes, a collar of torture taken from the Spaniards in 1588. Cravats (iron bands) for locking heretics by/their necks hands and feet also taken from the Spaniards. Many trophies of the conquest of the Spanish Armada. Th[ e ]
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contains a figure of Queen Elizabeth mounted and on horseback in the dress worn by her when she went to St Pauls to return
for the victory. The dress resembles the drapery of the Ancient natives. In this room devoted to the fame of Elizabeth is [ sa ]
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ved the axe ^used by^ of The Executioner at the beheading of her unhappy mother Anne Boleyn. The same weapon was used [ in the ]
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execution of the sentences of death upon the E[ arl ]
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of Essex in the reign of Elizabeth.
The Yeoman next conducted us t[ o the Ho ]
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use Armory, a hall 149 149 feet long and 33 feet wide where as-
ged in regular chronological order twenty two Equestrian figures of the most brave and illustrious of the Kings of E[ ngland ]
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with many of the Lords of greatest prowess, all in the appropriate armor of the age in which they belonged and many
armed each a in the identical harness of the respective persons represented. Among these figures are those of Edward 4th Henry 8th
Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk. The Earl of Leicester, the Earl of Essex James I Charles I James 2d
 Death: 1701-09-16
.
It would not interest you were I to describe the various other Armories of the Tower in which are preserved and arranged
The arms and standards won by English valor in their frequent wars. Here with the Regalia complete the relics and curios—
ities exhibited to the stranger in the far famed Tower of London.
The Tower was a Regal palace until the ascension of Queen Elizabeth. It has been the scene of violence and treachery and suffering
always. Here Henry 4th fell by the ruffian hand of Richard. Here the unhappy Clarence and the innocent princes of York and
Wales were murdered to make way for the same usurper. Here have been imprisoned the State Prisoners from time mem-
orial. We looked with interest into the apartments of Anne Boleyn and followed her to her execution upon Tower Hill
adjoining the tower. The room was shown to us in which Tyrell murdered the young Princes but it’s pretensions are considered
apocryphal. Having united the different apartments paid the fees recorded our names and paid each a shilli[ ng ]
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to the yeoman
we departed from the Tower and resuming our boat floated under Tower bridge passing the Bank 7 the Docks and were lan-
ded near the Thames Tunnel. Here we descended by a winding stair case far below the bed of the river we entered a
beautiful arched passage wide enough for the convenience of carriage and fast passages and handsomely lighted
by gas. The river here is about 1000 feet wide and the projected tunnel is 1300 feet long. About one third of the distance only
is completed. The work has been suspended many years for want of funds. It is now lighted and exhibited to visitors
It is a beautiful and noble work. The effect of the perspective as you stand in the entrance of the tunnel is to give it the
appearance of being completed. The views of it exhibited as I recollect in the windows of Ivisons
Birth: 1808-12-25 Death: 1884
book store at Au—
burn are very correct except that the coloring is too brilliant. The reverberations of sounds in this subterranean passage
produces a great effect. Having ascended to the light of day and regained our boat we pushed our way against wind
and tide up the Thames until we reached London bridge. You cannot imagine the panoramic scene of the crowded
multitude passing to and fro upon the bridge as ^it was^ presented to us upon the river below. We passed under the bridge and
having left our boat ascended and crossed the bridge among the multitude. The crowd is always pressing on pass—
engers and carriages entering the town take one side, those leaving town take the other. We returned our boat
and were next landed off at the foot of the street leading from the river to St. Paul’s Cathedral
St Pauls you are aware is one of the wonders of the world. It is remarkable for its immense proportions and fine Grecian
Architecture. The building of it occupied 35 years. Also begun and complete by Sir Christopher Wren
 Death: 1723-02-25
It is in the form of a cross divi—
ded by two rows of mossy pillars into nave and side aisles. The portice on the West side is of itself an immense structure
having twelve Corinthian Columns and surrounded by an upper portico of eight separate columns
The Dome is immense and is most imposing. I copy for you the dimensions of the ^entire^ Cathedral. The L

[left Margin] The length from east to West within the walls is 500 feet
Breadth of the nave and Choir 100
From North to South through the transepts 285
The Circuit of the whole 2292
The height exclusive of the Dome 110
Height from the vaults to the top of the cross 404


[right Margin] The whole expense of the building was about 1 ½ million of
pounds sterling 49nd ach equal to about four and an
half millions of Dollars. I was curious to see the whole
of St Pauls. I clambered with great labour the long stair—
case to the top of the dome, but the eternal smoke


[bottom Margin] shewed the atmosphere so that I could only see the neighborhood ^part of^ of London ^prevented my seeing any but the part of the city^ immediately around me. I descended
to the whispering gallery, the base of the dome. The diameter of “The dome” here is 100 feet. I took a position
and applied my ear to the wall at the side of the dome opposite the guide. The shutting of the door friend?
by him produced a sound as large as thunder and the softest whisper came to my ear as loud as if
with a trumpet. I looked down from this height upon the visitors beneath. They seemed like pygmies.
Like all the other Cathedrals St Pauls has many fine paintings and many interesting monuments, and
The most interesting monument perchance is that of the architect. It is a marble slab on which is inscribed in Latin

Page 4

what in English is rendered thus, “ Beneath lies Christopher Wren builder of this Church and city who lived upwards of
90 years not for himself but for the public benefit. Reader, do you seek for his monument? Look around.”
There are splendid monuments in honor of Nelson, Sir Inigo Jones Sir Joshua Reynolds
Birth: 1723-07-16 Death: 1792-02-23
Dr Johnson
Birth: 1709-09-07 Death: 1784-12-13
&c, and among them
one to General Packenham
Birth: 1778-03-19 Death: 1815-01-08
and General Gibbs
Birth: 1771 Death: 1815-01-09
who are represented standing together in military costume, with an air inscrip
tion which states “that they fell gloriously while leading the troops to an attack of the enemies works in front
of New Orleans on the 8th of January 1815.” Here are also monuments to Sir John Moore
Birth: 1761-11-13 Death: 1809-01-16
& Sir Isaac Brock
Unknown
.
The Square base of the dome is decorated with flags won from foreign nations.
Wearied with the labors of sight seeing we left St Pauls and throwing ourselves into an omnibus returned
to our lodgings at Mrs Wrights
Unknown
. Having the reflection to console us for our labor that we had seen and faith-
fully examined during the day Some of the most interesting objects in the world. Westminster Abbey, The Tower of London
The Thames Tunnel and the Cathedral of St Pauls. Sunday July 14th
Before returning for the night we made an arrangement with John Cox Morris
Birth: 1781-08-27 Death: 1849-02-08
and a Mr Ogden
Unknown
both Americans to go to the
next morning to Windsor. Accordingly on Sunday morning at about 10 O.Clock we set off in a post carriage to gain if
[ p ]
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ossible a glance at Royalty. Posting in England as well as all parts of the Continent is a very common mode of trav—
elling. This was our first trial of it. Although it was a short distance we still found it pleasant. It is about as cheap for
four persons as travelling by the Diligence. Persons who travel by post furnish themselves with a carriage and apply
at a post house for two or four horses as they wish. At convenient distances on all the important roads post
horses are Kept, thus relays are provided which dispatched and at a regulated price. The postilion rides one
of the horses and you may have as many footmen as you please. We being Republicans although going to
the abode of Royalty were of course content with two horses and no footman. Our exit from the city was
through the West end of the town affording us a view of Apsley House the seat of the Duke of Welling—
ton. Hyde park so celebrated in the annals of fashion. Here we stopped to admire the Waterloo monu—
ment made of the cannon taken from the French in that decisive contest. Our road passed over what was
formerly that dreaded haunt of robbers Hampstead Heath. It is now known a fine cultivated country. For miles
the suburbs of London seem like a populous village. and After a delightful ride of 22 miles ^we^ arrived at the
village of Windsor upon the Thames. At the distance of a few miles from Windsor we had a fine view of the Royal
Palace which overlooks the Town. The village seems not unwisely selected for the Royal abode It is handsom—
ly located on the bank of the river, is quiet and retired and must be a charming residence. It was our desire
to arrive at Windsor early enough to attend morning service in the Chapel, whereby we should assure
a sight of the King and Queen if they should attend Church. The waiters said the King and Queen ^were attending^ attended
Church ^today^ and With the aid of Boots we ascended the hill to the Chapel. Windsor Chapel like all the
important Churches here is a spacious edifice having what is called a Choir in which service is performed
The choir is furnished with seats the rest of the Edifice is not appropriated for humble worship. We
found the iron gates of the Choir Closed, inside the seats and aisles crowded, while 500 or 600 per—
sons like ourselves who had come too late were sauntering in the body of the Chapel. We could hear the
service and see through the gates, we saw where the King and Queen were sitting but their persons were con—
cealed from us. They have a large pew at the right hand of the altar in the gallery, which communicated
with the vestry
To deceive; to cheat; to trick; to defraud • A cheating or cheat; a cheat; a trick • A marine fowl of the genus Larus •
room so that the Royal family do not enter the Church by the customary passage.
Finding ourselves excluded & applied myself to a smooth looking personage to whom I expressed in
substance that we were Americans, that although we entertained a holy hatred of Kings we had
come from London to Windsor to gratify our curiosity by looking upon the faces of their majesties
that is we should not now have the opportunity to do so we should probably never see any of
the Lords anointed and with this speech I put into his hands one shilling sterling. He directed us
by a round about way to a door at the opposite end of the Chapel where he would meet us. After
he admitted us to the part of the Cathedral where the Royal Family enter & pass to the vestry
To deceive; to cheat; to trick; to defraud • A cheating or cheat; a cheat; a trick • A marine fowl of the genus Larus •
room. Here
We heard distinctly a very common place sermon by the Rev Mr Probyss
Unknown
, we heard
of course the sublime anthem played upon the organ by the Choir. We were now placed by our friend
arranged directly opposite the door of the vestry
To deceive; to cheat; to trick; to defraud • A cheating or cheat; a cheat; a trick • A marine fowl of the genus Larus •
Room through which their Majesties must pass when
they descended from their pew. We were admonished by our friend to hold our places firmly as there
would be a great crowd to look at their majesties. I believe it was very [ wierd ]
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Alternate Text: weird
but I really did think
the sermon ^sermon^ was long, the prayers long the anthem long, However it ended at last. The benediction
was pronounced, there was a bustle of the vestry
To deceive; to cheat; to trick; to defraud • A cheating or cheat; a cheat; a trick • A marine fowl of the genus Larus •
worshipers, a crowd gathered around us
Hand Shiftx

Frances Seward

Birth: 1805-09-24 Death: 1865-06-21
1833
Unknown
14/4—
From Frankfort
Hand Shiftx

William Seward

Birth: 1801-05-16 Death: 1872-10-10
Benjamin J. Seward Esq.
14th Nassau Street,
New York.
United States of America
from
Le Havre

[ Margin] the officiating Clergy entered their vestry
To deceive; to cheat; to trick; to defraud • A cheating or cheat; a cheat; a trick • A marine fowl of the genus Larus •
room and stood
looking towards the door which we were watching with such
intense interest. Now we saw the Clergy in their white robes bow
very low and there appeared preceded by four or five men in a kind
of uniform a plain short and fat man of about 65 dressed in a blue
coat and pantaloons with metal buttons, a light blue sash
over his shoulder and his hat in his hand. The majesties vis—
ion passed from my right the Clergy bowed again and there appeared
preceded by two or three females and accompanied by a gal—
lant of 21 years a tall lady about your size though
not so handsome dressed in white with a light pale blue bonnet
of the ordinary fashion. Her indispensable in one hand and her parasol
in the other. This was the Queen of England.
Darmstadt Prussia July 20th My dear Frances, My father abandon[ ed ]
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today the visit to Switzerland. We return by the Rhine and then are to
Paris. I shall carry this letter with me and deposit it in some
post office. I wrote yesterday and forwarded the letter from Frankfort
B.J.S.
Birth: 1793-08-23 Death: 1841-02-24
will please read & forward this letter. Provided always
it arrive before we do, which I think doubtful! WH Seward.
Darmstadt, 3 O.Clock P M Tuesday 30 July. The above paragraph
was premature. The resolut[ ion ]
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to abandon the route to Switzerland
is reconsidered. We proceed at 10 O.Clock this evening.